Saturday, October 31, 2026

Looking For A Professional Conjure Worker, Spell Caster Or Psychic Reader?

Email me at




Monday, December 5, 2016

Happy Krampusnacht!

Tonight, December 5, 2016, is Krampusnacht (Krampus Night)!

It's the time of year where that hairy devil, Krampus, comes-a-knocking to snatch up bad boys and girls for supper or else whip them with birch sticks. And all this time you thought that the punishment for bad boys and girls was just to get a lump of coal for Christmas!

Krampus is the dark-counterpart of St, Nicholas or Santa Clause. He proceeds Santa's visit, punishing bad children before Santa comes to reward the good little boys and girls.

In appearance, Krampus is quite hairy, is horned, and has only one cloven hoof with the other foot being of normal appearance. He carries a bundle of birth sticks to punish bad boys and girls and a sack on his back to abduct the children he preferred to take home to consume for dinner.

At this time of year it was once traditional for young adults to send Krampus greeting cards with quaint and humor-filled images of the devil Krampus scaring, whipping, or abducting bad boys and girls. It was a tongue-and-cheek method of letting the recipient know that they were about to get their just rewards!

One of my favorite postcards was of a young couple making out, only to have Krampus jump out with birch twigs in hand to beat them for their public displays of affection.

It is also traditional for communities in various European countries to Krampusnacht parades where people dressed up as Krampus or other dark minions. It's sort of like Halloween in December.

So beware little ones! The big bad monster is out tonight!

Saturday, December 3, 2016

Spiritual Middens and Spiritual Caches

In my past few blog entries I have written about using various items as spiritual decoys/dummies and/or spirit traps. This next blog is a continuation of such topic.

Archaeologists use the terms "Spiritual Midden", "Spiritual Cache", or just "Cache" to refer to the finding of concealed items within old structures. The word "midden" means trash or garbage, items of little to no worth, and that is exactly what they are. When one thinks of finding a hidden horde one immediately envisions gold, silver, money, jewelry, bank bonds, coins, or other valuables. So imagine the surprise of archaeologists to discover vast collections of rubbish that were purposefully hidden by their owners for a reason that they at first could not fathom. Many spiritual middens were simply thrown away or destroyed long before their true purpose was made known.

Technically, a spiritual midden can contain literally anything. However, the most often finds in a spiritual midden are clothing. The clothing is used as a spiritual decoy/dummy to draw the spiritual attack so that it takes the hit and the person whom the clothing belonged to is spared. Here are some things to keep in mind if you would like to use clothing as a spiritual decoy/dummy.

1. The clothing must be old. New clothes won't work.

2. The clothing should be soiled or unwashed, so that it retains the essence of the person.

3. If the garment normally comes in pairs, such as socks, gloves, etc., usually only one of the pair is used. This is similar to the practice of using shoes as a spiritual decoy/dummy.

4. If a garment is found by itself, which is rare, then it's just the use of a garment as a spiritual decoy/dummy. If a garment is found in conjunction with another item or items then it is labeled a spiritual midden. The size of a spiritual midden can vary from anything from two items to 500 items, in the largest spiritual midden found to date.

5. The clothing is not fixed when employed. Therefore there is nothing in it to "cut or kill" the evil.

6. The clothing does not operate as a spiritual trap. Instead, it's just a decoy.

7. Clothing or garments are employed by concealing them in the same places as other spiritual decoys/dummies. The fireplace, mantle, doorways, windows, in walls, foundations, etc.

8. If you should stumble upon a spiritual midden on an old property you can notify your local university or museum. Or you can chose to add to continue the practice by adding one of your own garments to the midden.

9. As with other spiritual decoys/dummies, secrecy is key to it's successfulness. Never tell another person that you have created a spiritual midden or where the midden is located.

Other than clothing, shoes, which I blogged upon in a separate bog entry, as perhaps the second most frequently found item in a spiritual midden. Rarer items would include anything from coins to paper documents and children's toys.

Personally, I'm not a fan of using clothing or garments as a spiritual decoy/dummy, simply because they aren't fixed and they don't act to trap the spirit or evil. Sure, one can fix them up so that they would act to cut or kill the evil but such wouldn't be a traditional use. I admit they may act as a temporary diversion for evil. However, I would think that an intelligent spirit would quickly be able to see through the ruse. To each their own.

2,000 Year Old Tablet May Be Oldest Reference To Jesus

A 2,000 year old codex has been discovered which may make it the oldest reference to Jesus. However, the find is not without controversy. When deciphered the text revealed that Jesus was not looking to start a new religion, rather he was simply trying to undo religious reformation that happened after the time of Solomon. During the time of Solomon and King David, the Hebrew people viewed God to be hermaphroditic, being both male and female. Soon after, religious reformation took place that purged all belief and reference to God having a feminine side. If the codex turns out to be legitimate, it would mean that Jesus was trying to restore the belief that God was both male and female.

Friday, December 2, 2016

Shoes As Spiritual Decoys And Spirit Traps

Shoes are extremely powerful personal concerns and much good and evil work can be done with them. In hoodoo, most people are familiar with shoes as an extension of "foot track magic". Many people may not realize that the use of shows as spiritual decoys/dummies, or even as spirit traps, is incredibly ancient.

The concealing or depositing of shoes as a spiritual decoy/dummy or spirit trap is one of the oldest ways of working with shoes. To date, the finding of the oldest example of such work has been dated as being performed in the 14th century. This practice is hundreds of years old. Though it's been claimed that the practice went extinct back in the early-to-mid 20th century, I'm personally inclined to think that it actually still survives to this day.

What makes a shoe powerful as a personal concern is the fact that shoes are generally unwashed, meaning they have taken on the essence of their wearer, the person's sweat and skin cells. The strong stench of an old pair of shoes is evidence of it's power as a personal concern. Additionally, shoes actually will form a mold of the wearer's feet. Take an old pair of shoes and carefully explore the inside. You will see indentations indicating the presence of the big toe, as well as the other toes, not to mention the heel. Even a person who is flat-footed will leave their unique imprint of such condition in the shoe. So shoes become a powerful marker and link to their wearer.

When employing shoes one should keep a just a few things in mind.

1. They need to be old. New shoes won't work.

2. Only one shoe is needed. The majority of all finds of shoes used as spiritual decoys have been of only one shoe.

3. The majority of the finds of these shoes have been of the left shoe and far more women's and children's shoes have been found than men's shoes. However, the weird thing about this is that they are often found in locations, such as building foundations, that women would not have easy access to. Therefore, it's believed that this practice may have been most often performed by men. In fact, my own personally belief is that not only would this action be done by men for the protection of their family but also it might have been done to ensure that a man's wife stays with him and doesn't leave him.

3. Shoes do not need to be fixed. Do not place anything inside them. In fact, to do so would be to actually negate their ability to protect you.

4. Place them in the same places one would deposit or employ a spiritual decoy, such as; fireplaces or mantels, hearths, inside walls, buried near the front door, windows, etc.

5. Because the shoes are not fixed there is nothing in them that will cut or "kill" the evil. Instead, shoes serve as spirit traps, meaning that witches, their familiars or other evil spirits will go inside them and not be able to come out again. Because of such, it is extremely important that once deposited they should never be disturbed. To disturb them would mean risking setting free the evil that has been trapped.

6. Never tell anyone about the presence of the shoes nor disclose where they have been concealed. To do so would immediately reverse their ability to protect you.

7. If you find an old shoe in an out of the way place in your home, do not remove it! The custom is to always keep it intact but then add your own next to it. Remember, the shoe acts as a trap. So if you disturb it then you would be setting the evil free to now plague your family. Simply add your own shoes next to the find and keep the tradition going. Just makes sure you keep it secret.

Interestingly, this practice of concealing shoes as spiritual decoys and spirit traps has been documented not only all over Europe, but also in the U.S. it can be found both in New England and the South. I do not know if Harry Middleton Hyatt ever recorded this or similar practices as I have not personally searched his work for this material. However, I would be shocked if it did not appear in some form. If anyone knows of examples in Hyatt's work then feel free to leave a comment letting me know.

Thursday, December 1, 2016

Making A Doll Baby For Use As A Spiritual Decoy

Just like one can make a witch bottle to act as a spiritual decoy or dummy in order to protect one from witchcraft or spiritual attack, one can also use a doll baby to the same effect. In fact, for many people doll babies may be preferred over other methods due to the fact that they more closely resemble the human form. I've used multiple methods of making spiritual decoys and I can state that using doll babies are effective. However, it should be stated that they take longer to create if one makes them from scratch.

In order to make a doll baby for this purpose you will either have to create one from scratch, like was done in the old days, or use a commercially bought "voodoo doll" or a doll baby. [Just a bit of trivia....a "doll baby" is a doll that is in the shape of a baby. A "baby doll" is a baby that is as beautiful as a doll!]

If you are making a doll baby from scratch then I would recommend using the unwashed clothing of the person from whom the doll is being made for to make the doll's body. If you can't do this then at least use it as stuffing for the doll.

Making A Doll Baby For Use As A Spiritual Decoy

-Unwashed clothing from the person whom the doll is meant to represent (or a commercially bought "voodoo doll" or child's doll baby)
-Hair from the crown of head
-Fingernail clippings from right hand
-Fingernail clippings from left hand
-Armpit hair from under both arms (if male or if a woman doesn't shave)
-Pubic hair
-Toenail clippings from right foot
-Toenail clippings from left foot
-Dead skin (The heel is a good place to get a sample from)
-*A cloth heart with drops of blood (can substitute menstrual blood if female)
-1 razor blade
-*1 magnet or lodestone to draw any attack directed toward the person to the doll
-*1 black stone (obsidian, jet, black tourmaline, etc.)
-Needle, thread and scissors 
-Buttons or other items for decoration


Cut out the pattern for the doll out of unwashed clothing or else use other cloth of your choice and then use the unwashed clothing as stuffing. Sew it up, leaving the head open, and turn it inside out and then stuff it. You will need to put the personal concerns and ingredients in their proper, corresponding places in the doll. So for example, put the right hand nail clippings in the right hand or arm of the doll baby. The ingredients marked with a "*" are optional. Place the cloth heart, magnet or lodestone, razor blade, and black stone in the center of the doll baby. Spit in the doll head and then sew it up. You will then baptize the doll baby, pray and/or state your petition over it and then deploy it for use. 

Note: If you are using a child's doll baby then aim for the kind that has a soft center. You can make a slit in the center and stuff the doll with your ingredients and then sew it up. 

Note: If you are going to include a cloth heart with drops of your blood in the doll, try to obtain the blood by pricking the 4th finger of your left hand. This is a special place that is believed to link with your heart. It can be done quite painlessly and you can even buy diabetic lancets that are painless to use as well. Just use them to prick your finger and then squeeze the finger until the blood flows. 

Note: Black stones have the power to absorb and dissipate evil and negativity. It doesn't matter if it's a specific type, such as obsidian, jet, onyx, or black tourmaline. Any black or dark colored stone from nature will do the trick as well. Remember, these don't repel evil as that's not how a spiritual decoy or dummy works. We want the doll to be mistaken for the person it represents so that it takes the hit and not the person. 

Note: If preferred you can make a doll baby out of wax, clay, Play Doh, homemade playdough, or paper mache clay. Just keep in mind that these items may not be as durable as constructing one from cloth. Below are two recipes for homemade playdough and paper mache clay.

Kitchen Clay

1 1/2 cups of flour (no self-rising)
1/2 cup of table salt
1/2 cup of water (warm)
A few drops of liquid dish soap (any kind)
*Food Colors (optional)

Mix ingredients together in a bowl with a spoon. If the mixture is too wet, add more flour. If the mixture is too dry, add more water. Store the clay in an air-tight container or else keep in a zip-lock bag. If you wish to color your clay then add food coloring to the water before mixing. This clay does not hold intricate details well and often will crack when drying. Once dried, this clay can be painted or decorated as you like. The dried piece will be fine as long as you do not get it wet. If it gets wet it can dissolve and promote the growth of bacteria and mold. 

Paper Mache Clay Recipe

Tear pieces of newspaper into extremely small pieces. Soak in hot water overnight. You can then add the mixture to a blender or food processor if you want in order to get a finer texture. In a separate bowl, combine equal portions of flour and water and mix until you get the consistency of glue. You can also just use glue if you prefer. Mix the pulp with the flour/water or glue mixture until you form a clay. Use the paper mache clay to form your dolly. Once dried it can be painted or decorated as you prefer. 

Remember that as a spiritual decoy the doll baby can only work if it is in front of you and the oncoming evil. So if you place the doll baby behind your door and then are attacked while out shopping, then the doll can't protect you. So use these in conjunction with additional protective measures. You can make more than one. Once you deposit them you do not need to remove them and cleanse them. The razor blade and the black stone will cut/kill and dissipate the evil. Traditional places to employ or deposit them include the fireplace, a place of entry for supernatural beings, mantel, near doorways or windows, and inside walls. If you are incapable of deploying them in such areas then conceal them in other areas of your home. Do not display them out in the open as any enemy who can steal them will have your personal concerns to attack you with. If you want to bury them then the act of burying will also serve to ground the evil and negative energy. You can also bury or deploy them in a quincunx pattern in the four corners of your home and then once concealed in the center of your home, if you so choose.

An 18th Century Recipe For A Witch Bottle

This is a real treat. It's a real recipe for a witch bottle that dates back to the 1700s. This recipe involves heating the bottle over time, a seemingly novel approach. Why was the bottle heated? Well, some may argue that the bottle was heated to harm the witch. That may be so. However, if we take into account that the witch bottle is meant as a spiritual decoy or dummy, then perhaps heating the bottle is another means to mimic life, as in urine from a body is warm. It also may be that the heating of the bottle is meant to "heat up the work", as in to make it work faster and stronger. Perhaps all three reason are valid and correct. What's interesting is that the recipe talks about preventing your enemies from harming you but it's clear that the enemies references are in fact witches and people using black magic against you.

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Bellarmine Jugs

The above are three Bellarmine jugs in my collection. They date from the 1800s to the early/mid 1900s. The most expensive and highly sought Bellarmines date from the 1500s through the 1700s.

Bellarmine Jugs, a.k.a. Bellarmines, Bartmann (bearded man) Jugs, or Greybeards, is a style of stoneware jug, that usually has at least one handle and is corked. The most distinctive feature of the bottles is the older, bearded, male face that is found slightly below the neck of the bottle. This style of bottle originated in the 16th century and was popular for around 200 years. Bellarmine jugs were primarily used to store liquor. It's the "second life" of the Bellarmines that is of importance here. That second life was for the creation and employment as a "witch bottle".

The popular name of Bellarmine is in fact a reference to St. Robert Bellarmine, a notorious Catholic inquisitor and enemy of Protestantism. It was long assumed that due to the name that the face portrayed on the bottles was in fact his. This belief is incorrect as the bottles originated before his birth.

Of all the old witch bottles recovered from old houses and property in Europe, over half of the bottles were Bellarmines. It appears that Bellarmine jugs were the preferred container to use when creating a witch bottle. As far as why this is so, there are many opinions. Some have argued that the bearded face acts as an apotropaic charm to scare off evil. This may be true of the Bellarmines produced in the 17th century, as such tend to portray very grotesque faces. However, the original Bellarmines produced in the 16th century portrayed a normal face.

I favor two reasons why these Bellarmines were the preferred bottle of choice. The first reason is that the inclusion of the face made the bottles anthropomorphic. Since witch bottles are designed to protect a specific person this anthropomorphic bottle would have been viewed as superior than the standard variety. The second reason is that these bottles just look cool! Many of them have a spookiness aspect to them which may have been viewed as being ideal for usage as a witch bottle.

Now, when discussing witch bottles I need to state that there is a lot of misinformation online. Much of the misinformation stems from the self-styled witches of modern times who tend to not understand what a real witch bottle is and how to make one. The term "witch bottle" is not a synonym for "spell bottle" or "bottle spells". A witch bottle is not a bottle made by a witch.

To confuse matters even more, there are three different types of witch bottles. I'll list them below.

1. The Fake Witch Bottles - These are made by modern witches and contain any number and type of ingredients. They usually include herbs and gemstones believed to possess protective qualities. These bottles are often decorated quite beautifully. Many of them are designed to be displayed openly in the home or area. I'm not saying that these bottles don't work or don't have power. By listing them as fake I'm stating that they have no connection to the old, traditional witch bottles. The people who make these types of witch bottles mistakenly believe that a witch bottle is a bottle made by a witch. Included in this category are also things such as honey jars, vinegar jars, break-up jars, etc. People who may claim that these are witch bottles mistakenly believe that the term "witch bottle" is a synonym for any type of spell that incorporates a bottle.

2. Blue Glass Witch Bottles - These do have a history of use. The color blue has a very long history of belief that it can protect against the evil eye as well as evil spirits. So although I accept that these can be called witch bottles I must add they don't act the same as a traditional witch bottle.

3. True Or Traditional Witch Bottles - A true or traditional witch bottle is used not to repel or drive away witches and evil spirits. Instead, a traditional witch bottle is created to act as a spiritual decoy or dummy, taking the full brunt of the spiritual attack so that the person that it represents is spared harm.

From analysis of the contents of old witch bottles recovered in Europe and in colonial America, we know that the overwhelming majority of them contained just 3-4 basic ingredients. Those ingredients are:

-Hair and/or nail clippings
-Iron pins and/or needles

That's it! In rare cases items such as the following have been found;

-Chicken bones
-Slivers of wood
-Cloth heart

I'm going to go over these ingredients and share with you a very interesting observation I had concerning the inclusions of urine.

Of the basic ingredients used, hair and nail clippings are personal concerns from the person that the bottle is mean to act as a spiritual decoy or dummy for. The iron pins/needles and urine are very intriguing.

So I would like my readers to ponder why urine was used. Just think about that. Of all the personal concerns one can use why is it that urine is used so frequently? Pause reading here and think about it for a while before scrolling down and continuing
It is my personal opinion that the reason why urine was so frequently used was because people of this time period were plagued with UTI's (Urinary Tract Infections) and STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) . Can you imagine how painful it must have been for women back then? Think about how you would get buy having constant battles with UTI's and without there being any antibiotics or pain medicine available to remedy it? It must have been excruciating. Top that with rampant STDs and it's hard not to think that everyone must have experienced routine burning, painful urination. Now, I'm not female and I've never had an STD. However, I've been told that having and STD causes not only burning sensation while urinating, but also a type of shooting pain that feels like sharp pins or needles are being stabbed into your urethra. Could this be the reason that urine and pins/needles were used? Were people trying to inflict or reverse the same pain they felt back to the witch they believed was causing such pain? Or was the inclusion of urine meant for the evil to attack it instead of the urine in the person's body, to stop painful urination? Can you blame people back then for thinking that UTIs and STDs must be the work of witchcraft?

With regard to the pins and needles used, such were made from iron. Iron has a long history of possessing magical protection against the supernatural. Also, the pins and needles were often purposefully bent before being placed into the bottle. Why? This practice is also very old. It's a form of sacrifice. It dates back to pagan times where gifts for the gods were purposefully bent or broken so that they no longer had value to mortals. For example, a sword may be bent or broken in two before being cast into a river as a gift to the river god. So the bending of the pins and needles is a similar form of practice. By bending them they can no longer be used as regular pins or needles. It should also be stated that pins and needles were somewhat expensive.

Additionally, pins and needles are sharp. Pins and needles may have been used as replacements for knives or blades. The belief is that the sharpness "cuts" the evil or witchcraft, killing it. Since a knife or blade usually won't fit down the narrow neck of a bottle, pins and needles may have been chosen as substitutes.

Moving on to the rarer ingredients recovered from old witch bottles, slivers of wood and thorns are substitutes for the needles and pins. They too are sharp. All three may represent the pain of UTIs and STDs. Or the slivers of wood, thorns and needles/pins may have been used to "cut" and destroy the evil. Maybe it was both at the same time.

The inclusion of bones, usually chicken bones, could be because the cock was a solar symbol, with the cock's crow symbolizing sunrise. Witches and witchcraft belonged to the night, the time of darkness. So sunlight itself was deemed protective as it drove darkness away. Or it could be that the inclusion of chicken bones was an attempt to trick the witch or evil spirit into believing that the victim was already dead. Maybe the answer is both as well.

The most curious inclusion was the cloth heart. Again, these are among the rare items found in witch bottles. I'm curious to know if researchers have had the cloth hearts tested. My personal belief would be that the cloth heart would have had drops of blood from the person the bottle was made for on it. That's just what I would do. Or it could be that the cloth used to make the heart was in fact an unwashed piece of clothing from the person whom the bottle represented. Maybe both as well.

What we don't find as ingredients in these witch bottles are things like herbs, roots, gemstones, and the like, the kind of things that modern, self-styled witches use. The reason being is because these bottles are decoys for specific people and are not meant to repel or drive away evil.

It should be stated that Bellarmines were never popular for use as witch bottles in the U.S. Instead, witch bottles in the U.S. tended to be made of ceramic or glass. They did work their way into hoodoo and were recorded by Harry Middleton Hyatt. Hyatt also recorded various ways to identify or kill witches that often employed the use of urine. So perhaps the belief that UTIs and STDs were caused by witchcraft was a idea that spread and was still active in the U.S. at the time that Hyatt was conducting his interviews. It should be noted that neither Hyatt nor his informants call these things "witch bottles", but the ingredients and purpose are the same.

If you are interested in creating your own witch bottles to use as spiritual decoys or dummies then below are a couple of recipes that I have personally used. I was going to withhold the second recipe, considering it one of goodies from my "bag-o'-tricks" but then thought, "what the hell" might as well share it.

Traditional Bellarmine Witch Bottle

-1 Bellarmine Jug (or plain jug or bottle)
-Hair and/or nail clippings
-9 bent nails  and/or pins
-Urine (about a shot glass full)

Modern Bellarmine Witch Bottle

-1 Bellarmine Jug (or plain jug or bottle)
-Hair from the crown of the head
-Nail clippings from each finger on the right hand
-Nail clippings from each finger on the left hand
-Underarm hair from each armpit (if male or a woman who doesn't shave)
-Pubic hair
-Nail clipping from each toe on the right foot
-Nail clipping from each toe on the left foot
-Dead skin (the heel is a good place to take it from)
-Cloth heart made from one's unwashed clothing and containing drops of one's blood (women can use their menstrual blood if they so choose)
-Urine (about a shot glass full)
-1 magnet or lodestone (to draw anything thrown at you or sent to you toward it instead of hitting you)
-1 razor blade (to cut and kill the evil)
-*1 black stone (obsidian, jet, black tourmaline, etc.) [This is optional. Black stones work by not repelling evil but by absorbing it and neutralizing it.\

I fix my Bellarmines similarly to mojo hands, mainly that I pray and state my petition over them, spit into the bottles, breath into them, and then seal them before inhaling. Once fixed they are ready for use and can be buried or concealed in the home or on the property.

I can attest that these witch bottles do indeed work. However, the key is to understand how they work and how to properly employ them. Just constructing them is not going to help you. You have to know how to properly employ them.

Do not store these out in the open. They have your personal concerns in them. If you keep them out in the open then any enemy can steal them and have some powerful stuff to use against you.

Witch bottles were employed by burying them on the property or concealing them in the house. Evil and witchcraft love to take certain paths into your home. One of these paths was through the fireplace [Note that's how Santa Clause gains entry to the home. The fireplace was viewed as an entrance for the supernatural]. So this explains why many old witch bottles have been found in chimneys and fireplace mantels. You can create multiple witch bottles and bury one near the front door and others in concealed locations around the home. Pay attention to all means of entry, such as windows and vents. If possible, make one for each room.

When under spiritual attack, the evil or witchcraft is going to make a rush toward you. Ideally, you will want the witch bottle to be between you and the evil. That way the evil will sense the bottle first and mistake it for you. If the witch bottle is not in front of you and the oncoming evil then it won't be able to take the hit for you. So keep that in mind. Also note that when you are not at home you remain vulnerable to attack. So employ witch bottles in conjunction with other means of personal protection. Finally, once you deposit and employ your witch bottle you do not need to dig it up or take it out to refresh it in any way. As long as you included something to cut or kill the evil it will continue to work the rest of your life. If you buried it then the evil will be grounded and made harmless. If you want to move you can chose to dig them up and take them with you but it's not necessary. You can always just remake more once you settle in to your new home. People have only found the old witch bottles because the owners did not disturb them once they were in use.

Note: Witch bottles will protect against both witchcraft and lower level spirits. Spirits that are more intelligent may be able to see through this ruse and can still attack a person. That's why additional means of protection should be used along with witch bottles.

Monday, November 28, 2016

Ancient Man Was Non-Conscious - The Bicameral Mind

So I'm a big fan of the HBO series, West World. It's a remake of the 70s movie in a series format. The next episode is titled, "The Bicameral Mind".

The Bicameral Mind is a hypothesis of how consciousness developed. The hypothesis was put fort by Julian Jaynes in his 1976 book, "The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind"

In a nutshell, the hypothesis states that consciousness, the ability of self-awareness, only evolved around 3,000 years ago. Prior to this time, human were non-conscious, having little to no self-awareness, something kin to an android or robot, only carrying out programmed behavior.

The word "bicameral" means "two-chambered". This is a reference to the belief that these non-conscious humans had their minds divided into roughly two hemispheres. The right hemisphere, call the god portion, and the left hemisphere. The god portion communicated to the left hemisphere via auditory hallucinations that humans interpreted as the voices of the gods or deceased ancestors. The left hemisphere simply obeyed the voices that told them what to do without question.

In a nutshell, people before 3,000 years ago did not understand that these voices where "theirs". They attributed thought and these auditory hallucinations to an outside, supernatural force, i.e. "the gods". It was this that spurned the development of religion where these "voices" appeared to be vastly superior to humans. Civilization was constructed around this framework, with a king or ruler that dictated behavior and subjects that did as they were told, reflecting the bicameral mind.

The important thing to comprehend about this is also the hardest thing to comprehend. How can a conscious being understand what it's like to be non-conscious?

These people, though outwardly looking human, even possessing human behavior, were not human mentally. There was nothing going on inside them. There was no introspection. They had no concept of "I"-ness. They were literally like robots. They merely responded to stimuli. The light was on but nobody's home.

There is considerable evidence that this is the case because much of the stories and writings of ancient man do survive. In these writings, which include much of the old portions of the Old Testament, it's clear that people were just like this. They constantly heard the gods (or God). They spoke nothing about any internal thoughts or feelings. It was only reaction to outward stimuli. It's very odd.

The one literary work that is picked as the best example of this is Homer's Odyssey. In it Odysseus hallucinates the voices of the gods telling him what to do left and right. His men, and every other character, are just robots who then obey his commands. They have no internal life. They are simple automatons.

Sometime around 3,000 years ago things began to change in human society. New stresses and circumstance helped for the evolution of "I"-ness, which is the birth of consciousness. Now mankind was fully human. The voices of the gods fell silent, only rearing their heads in that state between sleeping and wakefulness as well as various mental illnesses.

This is a remarkable, mind-blowing hypothesis. It's not without it's kinks but it's a fascinating subject to study. If this turns out to be true then I'm convinced there are people today who are non-conscious. I've met numerous people who claim that God talks to them in an actual voice and not just a feeling. I've met many more people that seem to be incapable of introspection. Can you imagine if the world slipped back into this non-conscious state again? One would be the last human on the planet even though the world would be full of people. Since we don't truly understand why consciousness evolved it may actually be possible that our species might once again slip back into non-consciousness and return to the bicameral mind.

Also, if this fascinates you like it does me, check out the link below. This truly frightens me!